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Mercy Odongo Nov 26, 2020

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Stakeholders refers to groups of individuals who have vested interest in adaptive work. They may be involved directly or indirectly and as the issues change, they are likely to change. The change is influenced by the sets of expectations to be satisfied and level of commitment towards the core objective of solving an adaptive challenge. Let’s think about poaching as an adaptive challenge, stakeholders will include all groups that have vested interest. These are African countries, IUCN, China, animal rights groups, environmental groups, African Wildlife Foundation, Governments, private groups, NGOs, local community and military.

With the expected changes and the level of commitment, stakeholders can further be mapped under the following groups:

1) Factions: these are small organized groups based on perspectives. As perspectives change, they also change. Factions are united by a common goal that differs in some aspects from the rest of the group. For poaching, factions may comprise anti-poaching, business opportunities in poaching, lovers of animal parts- tusks, bones, pelts

2) Participant: Are people who will be taking part in the adaptive work.

3) Constituencies: Are people who have a common goal. The common goal drives their commitment. Examples of constituencies in poaching include conservationists, business men, poachers, animal product lovers.

4) Allies: Allies are people on your side and who you will be acting together and protecting one another

5) Confidants: Confidants are people we trust. They listen to us and help us make sense of our experience as we try to get difficult work done.


Racial discrimination continues to affect the world. Discrimination mostly is directed to a person or people on the basis of their membership to a particular racial or ethnic group, typically a minority or marginalized groups. Racism is a social disease, passed from one generation to the other. It is not passed through genes but it is taught; as the human race we remain genetically the same.

Effects of racism are many. It has led to poor mental and physical health and in many occasions led to deaths. Taking United States as an example, racism remains a daily experience with approximately 66% of blacks reporting day to day racial discrimination. The poor mental and physical health is due to mental trauma as a result of blocked opportunities for example being turned down for a job opportunity, lack of promotions and poor pays.

Deaths have been reported as a result of racism with the 25 May 2020 death of George Floyd in Minneapolis by a white police officer and the shooting of Ahmaud Arbery on 23 Feb 2020 in Brunswick by a white father and son being the latest deaths that have led to outrage and protests across the world.

Many policies and anti-racism organizations such as UN Human Rights Council and European Commission against Racism and Intolerance were formed to eradicate racism in the world. Activists and people of good will have also joined in taking lead against racism. Despite these, people continue suffering. The question is what happens during the implementation of the policies and measures put in place? Are all groups represented and are they prepared to go back to their respective societies with the proposed measures? In leading this adaptive challenge, understanding the political landscape is key to its success. One needs to engage the stakeholders and understand their values, loyalties, losses and hidden alliances. Stakeholders will include but not limited to Black Americans, Black Africans, Latinos, police system, justice system, politicians, policy officers, national police unions, leadership such as Donald Trump, American White, movement builders, activists such as Black lives matter activists.

One will need to establish values; what influences one’s behavior. Values may include human dignity, equity, fairness, equal opportunity, representations, access to resources, culture, patriotism. Loyalties to consider may include ancestry, ideologies, system, societal expectation. Privileges, favors, struggle like the rest, significance, power, status, identity, prestige, relevance is some of the losses that may influence participation. Hidden alliances may include Black Americans, Black Africans, Latino, racial discrimination, opportunities, access to resources, lack of sense of belonging, inadequate reaction, police brutality, cycle of injustice, police violence, demand for change, violation of civil liberty of the people.

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Written by

Mercy Odongo